In sub-Saharan Africa, only Nigeria's economy of (US$29,9 billion in 1994) is larger than Mpumalanga's (US$10,1 billion).
The main business sectors are manufacturing (forming a quarter of the economy), mining and services. The Mpumalanga plateau is rich in coal reserves, with Witbank being the centre of the local coal-mining industry (it is the biggest coal producing area in Africa). The Kruger National Park is the main attraction of the tourism sector.
The Maputo Corridor, which links Mpumalanga with Maputo and Gauteng is the first international toll road in Africa.